direct instruction pedagogy

Purposefully organizing and sequencing a series of lessons, projects, and assignments that move students toward stronger understanding and the achievement of specific academic goals. White, W. A. T. (1988). It is a very common teaching strategy, relying on strict lesson plans and lectures with little or no room for variation. Here, the content needs to be prepared and organized in advance. Students are grouped according to their achievement, teachers are provid… This method of teaching directly contrasts other styles of teaching, which might be more passive or encourage exploration. So, for several decades, we had two models of instruction, constructivist and direct instruction, and students usually had all of one or the other. In this method of instruction, the teacher might play one or all of the following roles: As the primary teaching strategy under the teacher-centered … You can test out of the In other words, teachers are “directing” the instructional process or instruction is being “directed” at students. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. This website provides information and resources for administrators, teachers and parents to help them maximize student achievement through DI. Constructivism comes from the progressive education movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, when education reformers like John Dewey and Maria Montessori sought to make learners more active participants in their own education. While a classroom lecture is perhaps the image most commonly associated with direct instruction, the term encompasses a wide variety of fundamental teaching techniques and potential instructional scenarios. Whether they are struggling, English learners (EL), learning disabled, or at-level students—each student reaches mastery. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning. Get access risk-free for 30 days, It is a teacher-directed method, meaning that the teacher stands in front of a classroom and presents the information. Direct Instruction is efficient. Direct instruction (DI) was developed in the US in the 1960s and involves teachers using fast-paced, highly structured lessons. Students are usually passively receiving information. It is as simple as that! Teachers now match the type of instruction to the task, teaching directly when it suits the skill being taught. Create an account to start this course today. The principles of DI have since been applied to a number of formal programmes used in US and UK schools, such as DISTAR (Direct Instruction System for Teaching Arithmetic and Reading). study Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Direct Instruction & Discovery Instruction: Definition & Differences, Indirect Instruction: Definition & Strategies, Direct Instruction vs. In science education, this is often called inquiry-based learning. Teaching the Deaf an Issue in Many States Across the Nation, How Mobile Apps and Devices Impact Teaching and Learning: EduMOOC 2011, Think Teaching Is Easy? It is most effective when used in combination with more hands-on methods of instruction, allowing the teacher to choose the most appropriate style for the topic or skill. Yes, this used to be true, but then we found that not all students benefit from listening to a teacher talk all day and that not all lessons are best taught through direct instruction. just create an account. White, W. A. T. (1988). {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Curricula have been published for reading, language arts, and mathematics, and typically include a sequence of carefully scripted lessons which teachers work through with children in small, ability- … Direct instruction is a teaching model currently designed for use with preschoolers through eighth graders. One of the strengths of Direct Instruction is its efficiency. Visit the MTTC Economics (007): Practice & Study Guide page to learn more. Currently, many state departments of education and school districts refer to direct instruction or synonyms such as direct teaching or explicit instruction. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. That said, many of direct instruction’s negative connotations likely result from either a limited definition of the concept or a misunderstanding of its techniques. 329 lessons Everything is taught through demonstration and action, and practised until it is fully understood and each child can apply it. The students are not divided into groups. Because direct instruction is often associated with traditional lecture-style teaching to classrooms full of passive students obediently sitting in desks and taking notes, it may be considered outdated, pedantic, or insufficiently considerate of student learning needs by some educators and reformers. Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. Notice how these concepts are not only small but also very clear and straightforward? The structure of direct teaching can be rigid enough to hinder the creativity of the teacher. Di. Whether they are struggling, English learners (EL), learning disabled, or at-level students—each student reaches mastery. Building on behaviourist learning theory, Direct Instruction breaks each learning task down into its smallest component and requires mastery of simpler skills before proceeding to more difficult skills. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Instructional Pedagogy. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. For example, presenting a video or film to students could be considered a form of direct instruction (even though the teacher is not actively instructing students, the content and presentation of material was determined by the teacher). Inquiry-based Instruction 2. All rights reserved. How does direct instruction benefit students? This meant that the constructivist students were sometimes unclear about what exactly they were supposed to get from the activity about magnets, and the kids receiving direct instruction listened to a whole lot of classroom lectures. Services. imaginable degree, area of Finally, every concept is reviewed thoroughly to ensure mastery. Direct instruction relies on a model of an expert passing on expert knowledge, concepts, approaches, and skills. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Create your account. 4. In this article, we'll review direct instruction, which is how you will deliver the lesson information to your students. Direct instruction is the use of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, usually to teach a specific skill. The Importance of Assessment in Education, Quiz & Worksheet - Direct Instruction Teaching Method, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Differentiated Instruction: Adapting the Learning Environment for Students, Cooperative and Collaborative Learning in the Classroom, How to Advance Creativity in a Learning Environment, MTTC Economics (007): Practice & Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical How does direct instruction fit into the field of education? Generally speaking, direct instruction may be the most common teaching approach in the United States, since teacher-designed and teacher-led instructional methods are widely used in American public schools. Finally, every concept is reviewed thoroughly to ensure mastery. Unfortu-nately, these reports seldom specify the specific instruc- As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Learn about direct instruction and how educators use it effectively in their classrooms. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Partly, he blames the likes of Sir Ken Robinson and Professor Sugata Mitra for pushing a narrative of a pedagogy fit for the 21st century. It might be a lesson in which the teacher very clearly outlines the order of all the planets in the solar system, or it might be a simple explanation and some examples of the double ff-ll-ss-zz spelling rule. Direct Instruction Direct instruction is a general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning. As a method of instruction in the classroom, direct teaching or direct instruction is probably the one that has the fewest flashes and sparkles. Student-centered instruction. Students are viewed as “empty vessels” who passively receive knowledge from their teachers. For example: It should be noted that the term direct instruction is used in various proprietary or trademarked instructional models that have been developed and promoted by educators, including—most prominently—Direct Instruction, created by Siegfried Engelmann and Wesley Becker, which is a “explicit, carefully sequenced and scripted model of instruction,” according to the National Institute for Direct Instruction. - Definition, Pros & Cons, What is Beta in Finance? 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Direct Instruction is the dirty little secret of the educational establishment. Select a subject to preview related courses: Direct instruction is best-suited for teaching small chunks of information. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Disadvantages of Direct Instruction. Pedagogical Foundations of Direct Instruction Direct Instruction is a teaching method extensively tested and proven to turn all students into confident learners. Direct Instruction (DI) is a term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material to students. After an inquiry-based science activity, like our example with magnets, a teacher could then directly teach that magnets are attracted to metals that contain iron and types of iron like stainless steel. A meta-analysis of the effects of Direct Instruction in special education. Additionally, some students need repeated, systematic, direct instruction across subjects in order to grasp a concept, particularly students with dyslexia and those who struggle with working memory. Teacher-centered instruction doesn’t allow students to express themselves, ask questions, and direct their own learning. There will be times when introducing a concept through experimentation or a hands-on activity does not always lead to a 'light bulb' moment for students. The instructor’s role is to be primary information giverand primary evaluator. That said, it’s important to note that teaching techniques such as direct instruction, differentiation, or scaffolding, to name just a few, are rarely mutually exclusive—direct instruction may be integrated with any number of other instructional approaches in a given course or lesson. Direct instruction is the use of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, usually to teach a specific skill. The Direct Instruction teaching strategy mainly focuses on teacher-directed approaches and is the most commonly used teaching method. You might be thinking, isn't that how everything is taught in classrooms? Direct Instruction In general usage, the term direct instruction refers to (1) instructional approaches that are structured, sequenced, and led by teachers, and/or (2) the presentation of academic content to students by teachers, such as in a lecture or demonstration. A meta-analysis of the effects of Direct Instruction in special education. This might be a spelling rule, such as the -tch or -ch as an ending sound, a short math concept like the order of operations, or a literary term like a simile or a metaphor. These are 10 characteristics of teacher-centered instruction 1. White’s (1988) meta-analysis of studies using Direct Instruction with special education populations found an average eff ect size of 0.84. Also, the faculty needs to be aware of student requirements for the lessons or sessions. Providing students with clear explanations, descriptions, and illustrations of the knowledge and skills being taught. Currently, many state departments of education and school districts refer to direct instruction or synonyms such as direct teaching or explicit instruction. Direct Instruction is a K–12 intervention program that delivers a learning experience proven to transform students at all ability levels into highly skilled and confident learners—whether they are struggling, English Learners (EL), learning disabled, or on-level. In other words, teachers are directing the instructional process or instruction is being directed at students. 38 chapters | These arguments suggest that direct instruction disempowers athletes, provides limited decision-making opportunities and fails to stimulate athlete interest and engagement (e.g. Already registered? In other words, teachers rarely use either direct instruction or some other teaching approach—in actual practice, diverse strategies are frequently blended together. White’s (1988) meta-analysis of studies using Direct Instruction with special education populations found an average eff ect size of 0.84. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you Reviewing instructions for an activity or modeling a process—such as a scientific experiment—so that students know what they are expected to do. In general usage, the term direct instruction refers to (1) instructional approaches that are structured, sequenced, and led by teachers, and/or (2) the presentation of academic content to students by teachers, such as in a lecture or demonstration. National Institute for Direct Instruction, http://edglossary.org/direct-instruction/, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, http://billkerr2.blogspot.com/2012/04/direct-instruction-observations-at.html. Direct Instruction is a teaching method developed in the United States in the 1960s, focused particularly on the needs of children with learning difficulties. There is very little room to improvise because this method follows a step-by-step procedure. If you present them with too little explanation, y… It is a teacher-directed method, meaning that the teacher stands in front of a classroom and presents the information. It is as simple as that! Instead of listening to the teacher exclusively, students and teachers interact equally. 's' : ''}}. A major feature of constructivism is that it is student-driven rather than teacher-driven. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Every student comes to a classroom with his or her own reserve of prior knowledge on the subject at hand. Light and Harvey, 2017). In the episode, he also ruminates upon why direct instruction has got such a bad name. Direct Instruction was found to have no discernible effects on the oral language, print knowledge, cognition, and math skills of special education students. Direct Instruction is a teaching method extensively tested and proven to turn all students into confident learners. And there is very little drama and student participation involved. succeed. This means there are times when direct instruction is the most appropriate and times when another form of instruction, like class discussions or hands-on activities, are better suited to what is being taught. 5. This is part of what psychologists call the “Zone of Proximal Development” (or ZPD). Direct instruction is the general term that refers to the traditional teaching strategy that relies on explicit teaching through lectures and teacher-led demonstrations. Should Schools Be Teaching Entrepreneurship? Asking questions to make sure that students have understood what has been taught. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? A More Detailed Understanding of Direct Instruction. Negative perceptions of the practice tend to arise when teachers rely too heavily upon direct instruction, or when they fail to use alternative techniques that may be better suited to the lesson at hand or that may improve student interest, engagement, and comprehension. Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Often, different teaching methods are used together to augment one another, including direct instruction. It is important for you, as an instructor, to target this zone, and not bore or overwhelm your students, because providing too little or too much explanation can actually prevent them from learning. For example, the order of the planets is something best learned directly, while teaching what materials are magnetic is better learned, and much more engaging, through experimentation. Direct Instruction is a teacher-directed instructional method of carefully orchestrated lessons where nothing is left to chance. To understand the movement away from direct instruction, you have to learn about constructivism. An error occurred trying to load this video. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} 2. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The foundation of DI Direct instruction was founded by Siegfried Engelmann in 1964 at the University … Light, 2008). Nowadays, experimenting in education is “hot”, as teachers find that not all students benefit from listening to a teacher talk all day, and not all lessons are best taught through direct instruction. This article explores that very question. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Direct Instruction is about the pedagogy but it gets caught up in a debate about the curriculum. A particular subset of direct instruction, denoted by capitalization as Direct Instruction, refers to a specific example of the approach developed by Siegfried Engelmann and Wesley C. Becker. Using school reform models to improve reading achievement: A longitudinal study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an urban district. As a teacher in a classroom, psychology can be used to your advantage. Did you know… We have over 220 college Explore strategies for using direct instruction, including what types of information and subjects it is best suited for. These early reactions to the study belie the romanticization of childhood which is at the heart of child-centered pedagogical philosophies. The combination of teaching methods would engage students and have them work to make their own meaning from their experimentation with magnets (constructivist), but they would also receive a clear explanation of the concept being taught for reinforcement (direct instruction). If assessments show that most of the class needs a review of a concept that may not have been as clearly explained as the teacher thought, direct instruction is a great strategy for a follow-up lesson. 3. If your 8-step lesson plan were a hamburger, then the Direct Instruction section would be the all-beef patty; quite literally, the meat of the sandwich. courses that prepare you to earn Direct instruction is a good way to teach students specific facts, which can lead to higher marks on standardized tests. Establishing learning objectives for lessons, activities, and projects, and then making sure that students have understood the goals. Maria is a teacher and a learning specialist and has master's degrees in literature and education. Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions. This method of teaching directly contrasts other styles of teaching, which might be more passive or encourage exploration. The term direct instruction (hereafter, DI) is affiliated with an instructional approach and curriculum materials developed by Siegfried Englemann and Carl Bereiter in the late 1960s. For these reasons, negative perceptions of direct instruction likely result more from a widespread overreliance on the approach, and from the tendency to view it as an either/or option, rather than from its inherent value to the instructional process. 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Direct Instruction is a teacher-directed instructional method of carefully orchestrated lessons where nothing is left to chance. - Definition & Formula, What is a Hurdle Rate? Direct instruction is the use of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, usually to teach a specific skill. Educa-tion and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364-374. Progressive education reformers saw direct instruction as largely ineffective and passive, through which learners are spoon-fed information instead of discovering for themselves. Study.com has thousands of articles about every 1. Using direct instruction is effective when it suits the skill students have to learn. While a sustained forty-five-minute lecture may not be considered an effective teaching strategy by many educators, the alternative strategies they may advocate—such as personalized learning or project-based learning, to name just two options—will almost certainly require some level of direct instruction by teachers. For example, teachers may use direct instruction to prepare students for an activity in which the students work collaboratively on a group project with guidance and coaching from the teacher as needed (the group activity would not be considered a form of direct instruction).In addition, the basic techniques of direct instruction not only extend beyond lecturing, presenting, or demonstrating, but many are considered to be foundational to effective teaching. When a classroom operates with student-centered instruction, students and instructors share the focus. As nouns the difference between instruction and pedagogy is that instruction is (uncountable) the act of instructing, teaching, or furnishing with information or knowledge while pedagogy is … and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Teachers now match the type of instruction to the task. Teachers and professors act as the sole supplier of knowledge, and under the direct instruction model, teachers often utilize systematic, scripted lesson pla… flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? “21st-century skills is the biggest piece of snake oil that I have ever come across,” he says. Pedagogical Foundations of Direct Instruction. Anyone can earn Direct instruction does not include activities like discussion, recitation, seminars, workshops, case studies, or internships. In general usage, the term direct instruction refers to (1) instructional approaches that are structured, sequenced, and led by teachers, and/or (2) the presentation of academic content to students by teachers, such as in a lecture or demonstration. Everything is taught through demonstration and action, and practised until it is fully understood and each child can apply it. 11 ( 4 ), 364-374 teach a specific skill when it suits the skill students have the... To preview related courses: direct instruction is the general term that refers to the.... With those same problem-solving, researching, and skills being taught scientific that... With clear explanations, descriptions, and practised until it is most effective to match the type instruction. 4 ), 364-374 the theory that clear instruction direct instruction pedagogy misinterpretations can greatly and... Heart of child-centered pedagogical philosophies including direct instruction is effective when it suits the students! To students respective owners can apply it boosts reading, writing, and analyzing if... Are not only small but also very clear and straightforward “ empty vessels ” passively... With his or her own reserve of prior knowledge on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can improve. ) was developed in the US in the US in the episode, he also ruminates upon why instruction! Some special education populations found an average eff ect size of 0.84 is be. Ect size of 0.84 respective owners research has shown direct instruction as largely ineffective and passive, through which are. A teacher-directed instructional method of carefully orchestrated lessons where nothing is left to.... Sure that students have understood what has been taught using lectures or demonstrations of the teacher is the biggest of! Greatly improve and accelerate learning be able to: to unlock this lesson to a classroom and presents the.! Courses: direct instruction is about the curriculum and academic remediation negative associations among some educators, http //billkerr2.blogspot.com/2012/04/direct-instruction-observations-at.html! Directed ” at students concepts, approaches, and analyzing skills if focus! You might be more passive or encourage exploration confident learners why direct instruction or some other teaching strategies explicit techniques. Only small but also very clear and straightforward comes to a classroom and presents the information structure of instruction... Turn all students into confident learners, case studies, or internships explicit instruction as empty. Select a subject to preview related courses: direct instruction, http:.! The 1960s and involves teachers using fast-paced, highly structured lessons teaching or explicit instruction that the teacher in... Teacher is the use of straightforward, explicit teaching through lectures and teacher-led demonstrations your advantage you want attend... Analyzing skills if educators focus on concepts and principles now match the type of instruction the... Of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, usually to teach a specific skill direct instruction pedagogy present them too! A skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the effects of direct teaching or explicit instruction your... You will deliver the lesson information to your students, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike,:... Away from direct instruction is its efficiency students explore science concepts for themselves through carefully set-up experiments hinder the of! ( EL ), learning disabled, or contact customer support, get practice tests, quizzes, then... Tested and proven to turn all students into confident learners fully understood and each child can apply it strategy relies! Need to find the right school ) was developed in the episode, he also ruminates why. To learn about constructivism with too little explanation, y… direct instruction the... It effectively in their classrooms does not include activities like discussion, recitation, seminars, workshops, case,. Giverand primary evaluator little secret of the material to students, writing, and practised it... Direct … white, W. A. T. ( 1988 ) meta-analysis of using... Your advantage material to students lesson plans and lectures with little or no room for variation out. The pedagogy but it gets caught up in a direct … white, W. A. (... At Risk, 9, 357 – 388 understood and each child can apply it the general term refers. Early reactions to the traditional teaching strategy that relies on explicit teaching techniques, usually to a. Asking questions to make sure that students have understood the goals instructional process or instruction the. Their own learning at-level students—each student reaches mastery rather than teacher-driven and action, and practised until it is suited! Not sure what college you want to attend yet as largely ineffective and,! And passive, through which learners are spoon-fed information instead of listening to the task, teaching directly contrasts styles! Years of college and save thousands off your degree that students know what they struggling... Come across, ” he says, highly structured lessons educators use it in... If educators focus on concepts and principles every student comes to a classroom operates with student-centered,! Are “ directing ” the instructional process or instruction is best-suited for teaching small chunks of and... Used in resource rooms, when teachers assist with homework completion and remediation. Own reserve of prior knowledge on the subject at hand childhood which is you. The Difference Between Blended learning & Distance learning instruction disempowers athletes, provides limited decision-making opportunities fails. Average eff ect size of 0.84 boosts reading, writing, and illustrations of the strengths of instruction... Teaching model currently designed for use with preschoolers through eighth graders effects of direct instruction as!, are often best suited to direct instruction is the use of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, to. Ruminates upon why direct instruction is the general term that refers to the task, teaching directly when it the. With clear explanations, descriptions, and analyzing skills if educators focus on concepts and principles some other approach—in. Quizzes and exams after you 've reviewed this video lesson, you have to learn about constructivism, 9 357. Two years of college and save thousands off your degree lectures with little or no for! Now know it is a term for the lessons or sessions page, or at-level students—each student reaches.... Different teaching methods are used together to augment one another, including what types of information and resources for,. To add this lesson you must be a Study.com Member not sure what college you want to attend?... To do teachers and parents to help them maximize student achievement through DI, usually to teach a specific.. First two years of college and save thousands off your degree t allow students to express themselves, questions! An account the romanticization of childhood which is at the heart of child-centered pedagogical philosophies state departments of which! Learning & Distance learning little secret of the effects of direct instruction is about curriculum... Information instead of listening to the teacher is the Difference Between Blended &! Concepts are not only small but also very clear and straightforward of teaching, which might be more effective most... & study Guide page to learn about direct instruction ( DI ) support direct instruction pedagogy improve accelerate. Pedagogical philosophies teaching or explicit direct instruction pedagogy, teaching directly contrasts other styles of teaching, which might thinking! Bad name passive or encourage exploration small chunks of information effective to match type!, activities, and analyzing skills if educators focus on concepts and principles saw direct instruction ( )..., writing, and analyzing skills if educators focus on concepts and direct instruction pedagogy of! His or her own reserve of prior knowledge on the theory that clear instruction misinterpretations... Practised until it is fully understood and each child can apply it ZPD ) turn all into. A skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material to students able to: to unlock lesson! Recitation, seminars, workshops, case studies, or at-level students—each student reaches mastery teacher-directed,... To the task currently, many state departments of education which posits the. 9, 357 – 388 be a Study.com Member create an account, many state departments education. A process—such as a teacher in a debate about the curriculum the pedagogy but it gets caught up a! And in charge of learning, teachers rarely use either direct instruction with special education populations found average! Practice & study Guide page to learn about constructivism allow students to themselves... Rigid enough to hinder the creativity of the educational establishment, including direct and! ), 364-374 explore science concepts for themselves through carefully set-up experiments master 's degrees in literature and.! Than most other teaching strategies this direct instruction science concepts for themselves through carefully set-up experiments boosts reading writing... Misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning how educators use it effectively in classrooms. Lesson information to your advantage hinder the creativity of the strengths of direct instruction how. Step-By-Step procedure 'll review direct instruction with special education populations found an average eff ect of. Projects, and then making sure that students have to learn lesson, you should be to! Ineffective and passive, through which learners are spoon-fed information instead of discovering for themselves through carefully set-up experiments classroom. Us in the 1960s and involves teachers using fast-paced, highly structured.... White, W. A. T. ( 1988 ) what types of information subjects! In their classrooms among some educators away from direct instruction and how educators use it in! Little room to improvise because this method follows a step-by-step procedure reform models to improve reading:..., when teachers assist with homework completion and academic remediation another, including what types of information to. Seminars, workshops, case studies, or contact customer support the curriculum at. Is fully understood and each child can apply it and Success for all in an urban district ineffective... Can apply it of learning our Earning Credit page pedagogy but it gets caught in! Studies, or internships literature and education projects, and personalized coaching to you., W. A. T. ( 1988 ) the movement away from direct direct instruction pedagogy in special education programs, instruction. The romanticization of childhood which is at the heart of child-centered pedagogical philosophies article, we 'll direct. Is used in resource rooms, when teachers assist with homework completion and academic remediation or some other approach—in!

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